幼儿护眼小常识 Advice on how to develop a child eyesight.
Eye care is an indispensable part of the visual development of young children, as it can help reduce issues that may develop with age such as amblyopia and myopia. Paying close attention to eyesight care in early childhood will benefit a child eyes for life; if ignored or not dealt with promptly, it may lead to lifelong low vision, so we advise active care which will hopefully lead to prevention of any issues.
一、 幼儿视力发育特点 Visual characteristics in very young children
初生孩子的视力只有光感；Newborns visual receptors are capable only of light perception.
1岁时达0.2；2岁0.5；3岁0.7～0.8。在幼儿园期视力发育障碍（弱视）大多为可复性，即可通过弱视治疗重新发育达正常。At the age of 1, these receptors will be 0.2; at the age of 2; 0.5; at the age of 3; 0.7-0.8. In kindergarten visual development disorder (amblyopia) is mostly reversible, which can be re-corrected through amblyopia treatment.
二、 幼儿弱视（视力差）的原因：Reasons for amblyopia (Lazy Eye) in young children:
1、散光：散光是幼儿视力差最常见的原因，散光是一种先天变异，可以简单看成"黑眼球"不圆而是椭圆形（象鸡蛋），结果引起眼球水平和垂直方向的屈光度不同，形成散光。100度以上的散光就可以引起弱视。 Astigmatism: Astigmatism is the most common cause of poor vision in young children. Astigmatism is a congenital variation. Simply put it means that the ball behind the pupil is not round but oval (like an egg). As a result, the refraction of the eyeball is different in horizontal and vertical directions, resulting in astigmatism. Astigmatism above 100 degrees can cause amblyopia
2、远视或近视，特别是高度远视和高度近视必定引起弱视，而且属于难治性弱视。这种弱视等到6岁以后才治疗效果极差。 Hyperopia or myopia, especially high hyperopia and high myopia, will cause amblyopia , this amblyopia cannot be cured until the age of 6
3、斜视、眼球震颤等虽然少见，但引起的弱视极为严重。 Strabismus and nystagmus are rare, but the amblyopia caused by strabismus is very serious
三、弱视的危害性：Negative aspects of amblyopia
（1）弱视导致眼视力差。Amblyopia can lead to a poorer field of vision
（2）弱视可影响学习成绩。Amblyopia can affect academic performance
（3）弱视可引起立体视觉缺陷，使今后不能从事许多好的工种。Amblyopia can cause visual defects, which may prevent the individual from accessing certain jobs.
（4）弱视可造成终生低视力甚至眼盲。In severe cases amblyopia can cause lifelong low vision or even blindness
四、弱视的防治：Prevention and treatment of amblyopia:
Early detection and early treatment is the key to the prevention and treatment of amblyopia. The earlier amblyopia is found, the higher the cure rate is, the treatment becomes less effective after 8 years old, and rarely effective after 12 years old. Therefore, pre-school age (3-7 years) is the best time to treat amblyopia. The simplest way to detect amblyopia early is to check the eyesight. All children whose eyesight is less than 0.9 should go to the hospital as soon as possible for mydriasis optometry to detect amblyopia as soon as possible
2、配戴眼镜：是治疗弱视的基础，如该戴镜而不戴，是很难治好弱视的。配戴眼镜要求镜片标准，光学中心不错位、瞳距准确、框架不松脱、度数合理。最好到有眼保健专业知识，且技术过硬的配镜中心配镜。 Wearing glasses: This is the basis for the treatment of amblyopia, Without the use of glasses it is difficult to cure amblyopia. Wearing glasses requires standard lenses. When using an optometrist it is better to go to one that has professional knowledge of eye health care in the field of visual defects.
3、盖住健眼：当两眼视力相差2排以上时，盖住视力达0.8以上的那只眼可以解除其对差眼的抑制，并让差眼得到更多的视力锻炼，以获得好的疗效。Covering the healthy eye: When the visual difference between the two eyes is more than two rows, covering the more active eye which vision is more than 0.8 will help the weaker eye get more visual exercise..
斜视有显性及隐性两类。Strabismus can be classified into two categories: dominant strabismus and recessive strabismus.
由於眼球肌肉不平行，引致视轴出现偏差，眼睛出现斜视。Due to the axis of the eyeballs being non-parallel, which will lead to deviation of the optic axis and strabismus of the eye will occur
In addition to eye muscle problems, strabismus can also be caused by a large difference in degrees between the two eyes. When the degree of hyperopia or myopia in children's eyes is too different, the brain nerve will choose the clearest image for the retina while suppressing the blurred image on the other weaker retina, so that the visual nerve of the eyes with change position to a deeper degree, leading to amblyopia.
弱视的成因 Causes of amblyopia
主要是斜视或两眼度数相差太大。斜视及弱视不容易被察觉，唯一有效的方法就是定期眼睛检查。It is mainly strabismus or the difference between the degrees within the two eyes is too big. Strabismus and amblyopia are not easy to detect. The only effective method is to have regular eye examinations.
如上述两种问题於儿童出现时，而未能及时矫正，就可能会导致永久性的视觉缺陷。If these two problems are not corrected quickly when they occur in children, they may lead to permanent visual impairment.
而最近十至二十年，儿童患上近视的人数不断上升，而且度数愈来愈深，所以定期眼睛检查是必要的。In the last ten to twenty years, the number of children suffering from myopia has been increasing, with the difference in degrees between the eyes increasing.
远视的成因 Causes of hyperopia
儿童在成长初期，眼球比较细小，眼轴亦比较短，影像因而投射在视网膜之後，导致远视。随着儿童成长和眼球发展，远视逐渐减浅。直至发育完成，儿童会由远视变作无度数或近视。At the early stage of growth, children's eyeballs are smaller and their eye axes are shorter. Therefore, images are projected behind the retina, leading to hyperopia. With the growth of a child and eyeball development, hyperopia gradually decreases.
儿童患有远视并不容易发觉，因为儿童拥有很强的眼睫肌调节力，把影像重投视网膜上，所以儿童的视力未会受到影响，远视会完全被调节力所掩盖。Children having hyperopia are not easy to detect, because children possess a strong ciliary muscle which regulates images, so the image is re-projected into the retina, as such children's vision will not be affected.
儿童过度使用眼睫肌调节力很可能会引致内斜视。若未能及早纠正，儿童的视力会受到严重影响，甚至导致弱视。Overuse of the ciliary muscle in children can lead to esotropia (cross-eyed). If not corrected early, children's vision will be seriously affected, and even lead to amblyopia.
近视的成因： The causes of myopia:
* 眼球生长过长或眼角膜弧度过弯。Overgrowth of the eyeball or corneal curvature
* 不正确阅读姿势。Wrong reading posture
* 过多近距离工作。Focusing too closely on something
* 视觉系统受压力。The visual system is under pressure.
近视的影响：The effects of myopia:
* 影像投射在视网膜前，导致视网膜上影像模糊不清。Image projection in front of the retina will result in a blurred image.
* 须要配戴较重眼镜片以矫正视力。Strong glasses should be worn to correct visual accuracy.
* 出现视网膜病 变的机会较大 (例如: 视网膜退化，黄斑点病变等)。Retinopathy is more likely to occur (e.g. retinal degeneration, macular degeneration, etc.)
近视的预防方法：Myopia prevention methods:
* 正确的阅读姿势。Correct reading posture.
* 适当的阅读距离：30厘米或以上。Appropriate reading distance: 30 cm or more
* 适当的看电视距离:电视萤光幕的尺寸6倍或以上(6岁以下幼儿每天看电视时间不超过一个小时) Appropriate TV viewing distance: (children under 6 years old should watch less than one hour a day of television)
* 在光线足够的环境下阅读及工作，并避免在写字及阅读的范围内有投影干扰。Read and work in an environment with enough light
* 不要把阅读的课本放在旁边，并目不斜视。Don't put your reading books to the side of your face, but directly in front.
* 书本应与面部平衡。Books should be at the same reading height level as your face..
* 在进行近距离或高视力需求的工作时，需定时给眼睛作适当休息。最佳的眼睛休息方法是每三十分钟远望三十秒六米或以外的景物。When working at close range or with high vision requirements, it is necessary to give the eyes a proper rest at regular intervals. The best way to rest your eyes is to look away for 30 seconds, 6 meters or more every 30 minute
* 有适当的休息。Have a proper sleeping pattern.
家长要做到Parents need to do this
（一般由2岁开始需要定期检查眼睛）Take your child for regular eye examinations.
(Regular eye examinations are usually required starting at age 2)
* 若孩子八岁前未能矫正眼睛问题，将导致永久视力缺陷。Failure to correct eye problems before the age of eight may lead to permanent visual impairment.
* 留意小孩的动作和学习情况，如擦眼睛，蒙眼，不正常的姿势，成绩欠佳等现象建议带孩子检查眼睛以排除视力异常情况。Pay close attention to your children's actions and habits, such as wiping eyes, covering eyes, abnormal reading postures etc. It is highly recommended to take children to check their eyes to eliminate any abnormalities with their vision
* 饮食要均衡。Eat a balanced diet.
* 长时间用眼时，要有适当的休息时间。When you or your children use your eyes for a long time, you should allow the eyes to have a rest.
常见儿童眼睛异常情况应引起父母的重视 Parents should pay attention to common eye abnormalities in children
1.两眼交叉注视，或者一眼斜视；扭脖或歪头视物；斜眼看远处物体；习惯将玩具拿得很近或近距离看电视。这些情况可能有屈光不正、斜视或弱视。Check to see if your children display any of the sign, cross-eyed gaze, or strabismus; they twist their neck or crook their head when looking at things; squinting at distant objects; hold toys close or need to sit too close to the television. These conditions may include ametropia, strabismus or amblyopia.
2.眼睛流泪、经常性眨眼、揉眼，可能是眼睛内翻倒睫。. Fluid leaking from their eyes, frequent blinking and rubbing may be inverted eyesight or trichiasis.
3.眼痒、烧灼感或异物感，可能有眼睛炎症。Itching, burning or sensitive eyes, may be a sign of inflammation.
4.眼睑肿胀、出血、眼睛疼痛，要注意有没有眼外伤。Swelling in the eyelid, bleeding or eye pain, will show that there is trauma to the eye.
5.瞳孔区有白点，要注意排除先天性白内障。. If there are white spots in the pupil area may be a sign of a congenital cataract.
6.瞳孔区有黄白色像“猫眼”样的反光，要注意一种儿童期常见的眼部肿瘤——视网膜母细胞瘤。There is yellow-white "cat's eye" reflection in the pupil area, may be a sign of retinoblastoma, a common ocular tumor in childhood.
眼睛发育需要6大营养元素 Eye development requires six major nutrients
1.维生素A Vitamin A
食物来源：动物来源有肝脏、蛋类、奶类；植物来源有西兰花、胡萝卜、菠菜、南瓜、芒果等。Will help maintain the normal growth and differentiation of all cells, especially to light synthesis of rhodopsin. When the light is dark, rhodoviolin occurss, which stimulates nerves to form vision, so that we can see objects when the light is dark. If lacking in this vitamin it will reduce the ability to see in the dark
Food sources: Animal sources are liver, eggs, dairy; plant sources are broccoli, carrots, spinach, pumpkin, mango.
2.B族维生素 Vitamin B
食物来源：动物肝脏、瘦肉、蛋黄、大豆、坚果、全谷类食品、酵母、红豆等。Maintaining the function of nerve cells and normal physiological development which is an indispensable nutrient for eye development.
Food sources: animal liver, lean meat, egg yolk, soybeans, nuts, whole grains, yeast, red beans, etc.
食物来源：新鲜的蔬菜和水果，如柿子椒、茼蒿、苦瓜、菠菜、鲜枣、草莓、柑橘等。Vitamin C in the lens of the eyeball is notable higher than that of other vitamins in the tissues. The lens plays an important role in deciding whether the eye can see the object.
Food Sources: Fresh vegetables and fruits, such as persimmon pepper, balsam pear, spinach, fresh dates, strawberries, citrus fruits, etc.
食物来源：牛奶、奶酪、豆类、海产品及绿色蔬菜等。Calcium is known as the "second messenger" in nerve conduction, which shows its important role. Calcium deficiency of optic nerve can cause a series of problems such as vision fatigue and blurred vision.
Food sources: milk, cheese, beans, seafood and green vegetables.
食物来源：贝壳类海产品、红色肉类、动物内脏、坚果、谷类的胚芽、麦麸等。As a regulator of genes ability to perform, it can enhance the sensitivity of the optic nerve. Zinc deficiency also affects the body's absorption of vitamin A.
Food sources: shellfish seafood, red meat, nuts, cereal grains, wheat, bran, etc.
食物来源：富含硒的大米。硒在某种食品中的含量会因产地不同而存在差异，例如低硒地区的大米硒含量可少于0.02mg/kg，而高硒地区的大米硒含量可达到20mg/kg。Selenium exists in many tissues and cells of the human body, but its content in the eyes is the highest, as such it is one of the indispensable nutrients in eye development.
Food source: Selenium-rich rice. The content of selenium in certain foods varies with the origin. For example, the selenium content of rice in low selenium area can be less than 0.02 mg/kg, while that of rice in high selenium area can reach 20 mg/kg.
只有注重日常保健与补充丰富的营养才能让孩子拥有清澈明亮的眼睛，让我们一起来守护孩子纯净的心灵之窗！Only by paying attention to your child’s health and supplementing any missing nutrients into their diet can we help children have clear and healthy eyesight, let’s work together to ensure they have a future free of any eyesight issues.!